हरि सर्वोत्तम । वायु जीवोत्तम । श्री गुरुभ्यो नमः ।
*NOTE: Choose desired output script using Aksharamukha (screen top-right) to see Vedaswara.
हरि सर्वोत्तम । वायु जीवोत्तम । श्री गुरुभ्यो नमः ।
प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव क्षेत्रं क्षेत्रज्ञमेव च ।
एतद्वेदितुमिच्छामि ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं च केशव ॥ १३।१ ॥
Arjuna said –
I wish to know what are Prakṛti (matter) and Puruṣa (soul), Kṣetra (body) and Kṣetrajña (the knower thereof), Jñāna (means to knowledge) and Jñeya (the object of knowledge), O Keśava.
इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते ।
एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः ॥ १३।२ ॥
Śrī Bhagavān said –
O son of Kunti, this body is called Kṣetra; Him that knows this Kṣetra, they call Kṣetrajña.
क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत ।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम ॥ १३।३ ॥
O Bhārata, know Me alone as Kṣetrajña in all Kṣetras, i.e. bodies, the knowledge of Kṣetra and Kṣetrajña is according to Me the true knowledge.
Note : By this verse, it is unmistakably clear that Kṣetrajña is to be taken as referring to Parabrahma Supreme Lord, and that Supreme Lord is no other than Lord Kṛṣṇa. In this connection, reference is invited to verses 12 and 13 of the tenth adhyaya of Gīta which declare that Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is this Supreme Lord.
तत्क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक्च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत् ।
स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च तत्समासेन मे शृणु ॥ १३।४ ॥
What that Kṣetra is like, what its nature is, what its modifications are, and by whom it is activated, who He is, and what His powers are – all this hear briefly from Me.
ऋषिभिर्बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधैः पृथक् ।
ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः ॥ १३।५ ॥
All about the Kṣetra has been sung by sages in many ways separately in various Vedas and by the words of Brahmasūtras which are decisive and perfectly reasoned.
महाभूतान्यहङ्कारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च ।
इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः ॥ १३।६ ॥
The five great elements, Ahañkāra (implying also Mahattatva), Buddhi (intelligence) and also Avyakta (unmanifest Prakṛti the Tattva of three Guṇas), the five objects of sense, the eleven organs (five of sense and five of action and mind) – all these are called Kṣetra.
इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं सङ्घातश्चेतना धृतिः ।
एतत्क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकारमुदाहृतम् ॥ १३।७ ॥
Desire, aversion, pleasure, pain, bodily intellectual pervasion, firmness – these briefly constitute the modifications of the above mentioned Kṣetra.
अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम् ।
आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः ॥ १३।८ ॥
इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहङ्कार एव च ।
जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम् ॥ १३।९ ॥
असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्रदारगृहादिषु ।
नित्यं च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु ॥ १३।१० ॥
मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी ।
विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि ॥ १३।११ ॥
अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् ।
एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा ॥ १३।१२ ॥
Absence of pride; unostentatiousness; harmlessness; patience; righteousness; service to preceptors; purity of mind and body; steadfastness of duty; self-control; indifference to objects of sense; absence of egoism; repeated perception of the pain and evil of birth, death, old age and sickness; non-attachment to sons, wives and home; absence of intense attachment to anything; equanimity towards all desirable and undesirable happenings; at all times unswerving devotion to Me through exclusive knowledge of My unique superiority to all else; resort to holy and secluded places; aversion to the multitude; constant and eager contemplation of Atman; inquiry into shastras to achieve realization of God – all these are declared to be the means for true knowledge and all else other than or against the above will not lead to true knowledge.
ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वामृतमश्नुते ।
अनादिमत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते ॥ १३।१३ ॥
I shall declare that which is to be known, by knowing which one attains immortality. It is the perfect Brahman without the material body (which has a beginning and end); He is said to be neither Sat (manifested effects of Prakṛti) nor Asat (unmanifested cause viz. Prakṛti).
सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम् ।
सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति ॥ १३।१४ ॥
He has hands and feet everywhere, everywhere eyes, heads and mouths, ears on all sides, and dwells in the world enveloping and pervading all.
सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम् ।
असक्तं सर्वभृच्चैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च ॥ १३।१५ ॥
He makes us feel the effects of all the senses but is Himself devoid of all the sense organs formed of Prakṛti (matter); He is untouched by virtue or sin, is without any of the qualities or influence of Prakṛti and enjoys all excellence.
बहिरन्तश्च भूतानामचरं चरमेव च ।
सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत् ॥ १३।१६ ॥
He is within and without all beings, unmoving as well as moving, incomprehensible by reason of His subtlety. He is far away and yet near.
अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम् ।
भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च ॥ १३।१७ ॥
He is not divided i.e., separate among beings, and yet appears divided. He is to be known as the supporter of beings, swallower of everything during destruction (Pralaya), and the generator at the time of creation – Thus He is to be known.
ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिस्तमसः परमुच्यते ।
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम् ॥ १३।१८ ॥
He is the light of lights, i.e., the bestower of the power of illumination even to luminous objects like the Sun and is said to be beyond death or ignorance. He is of the nature of wisdom, the object of knowledge and is reached through knowledge and is seated specially in the hearts of all.
इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं समासतः ।
मद्भक्त एतद्विज्ञाय मद्भावायोपपद्यते ॥ १३।१९ ॥
Thus Kṣetra (body) as well as knowledge and the object of knowledge have been briefly expounded; having well understood this, My devotee becomes fit for residing in Me (Sāyujyamukti).
प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि ।
विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसम्भवान् ॥ १३।२० ॥
Know that Prakṛti i.e., 25 Tattvas and Puruṣa (Jīva) are both beginningless and also that modifications and qualifications and qualities are born of Prakṛti only.
(Another interpretation – Prakṛti denotes both the intelligent and non- intelligent Prakṛti, and Puruṣa both the soul and the Supreme Being – all the four beings are eternal and beginningless.)
कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते ।
पुरुषः सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते ॥ १३।२१ ॥
Prakṛti is said to be the cause of the effects (i.e. body) and the instruments (i.e. the organs) of the Jīva, Puruṣa (i.e. God) is said to be the cause of the soul’s experience of pleasure and pain.
पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान् ।
कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु ॥ १३।२२ ॥
Puruṣa (i.e. soul), residing in Prakṛti experiences the qualities proceeding from Prakṛti; attachment to the qualities (Satva, Rajas and Tamas) is the cause of his birth in good and bad wombs.
उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः ।
परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषः परः ॥ १३।२३ ॥
The Supreme Spirit the Great Lord dwelling in this body is said to be the Being that witnesses, that considers what has to be done, that is the Supporter and the Experiencer of the good essence of all actions; so He is called Puruṣa and is said to be in this body but different from it.
य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह ।
सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते ॥ १३।२४ ॥
He who thus knows the soul, the Supreme Being and the intelligent Prakṛti together with their qualities in what-so-ever condition he may be – is not born again i.e., attains salvation.
ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना ।
अन्ये साङ्ख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे ॥ १३।२५ ॥
Some by meditation see Atman (God) in their body through Buddhi, some by Sāñkhya Yoga obtaining knowledge of the Lord from the Vedas, and others by means of Karma Yoga i.e., performing duties only.
अन्ये त्वेवमजानन्तः श्रुत्वान्येभ्य उपासते ।
तेऽपि चातितरन्त्येव मृत्युं श्रुतिपरायणाः ॥ १३।२६ ॥
Others not knowing thus, take to worship and contemplation, by hearing from others the greatness of the Lord, they too are devoted to what they have learnt through hearing and cross over death (Samsāra).
यावत्सञ्जायते किञ्चित्सत्त्वं स्थावरजङ्गमम् ।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धि भरतर्षभ ॥ १३।२७ ॥
O Best of Bharatas, know that whatever being is born, moving and unmoving that has come into existence, is through the combination of Kṣetra (Cit Prakṛti) and Kṣetrajñā (Supreme Lord).
समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम् ।
विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति स पश्यति ॥ १३।२८ ॥
He who sees the Supreme Ruler dwelling in all beings as the same and see Him as not subject to evils of birth and death, though He is within the beings subject to them, is the possessor of true knowledge.
समं पश्यन्हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितमीश्वरम् ।
न हिनस्त्यात्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥ १३।२९ ॥
He who considers the Lord present everywhere as the perfect Brahman, does not ruin his own self i.e., pave his way to hell, and from such knowledge attains the supreme goal (Mukti).
प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः ।
यः पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति ॥ १३।३० ॥
He is the real seer who sees that all actions performed are being done by the Lord Himself through the instrumentality of Prakṛti and that he himself is a dependent being and does nothing independently of the Lord.
यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति ।
तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म सम्पद्यते तदा ॥ १३।३१ ॥
When he sees the distinctness of souls from each other and from the Lord and as existing in and proceeding from the Lord alone, he then attains Brahman.
शरीरस्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते ॥ १३।३२ ॥
O Kunti’s son, being without beginning and free from the three Guṇas – Satva, Rajas and Tamas – this Paramātman (the Lord) is imperishable; though present in every body He neither acts nor becomes attached to the consequences i.e., not affected by any anxiety, pain or misery (He is said to do nothing, for his action is not like that of a finite being)
यथा सर्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते ।
सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते ॥ १३।३३ ॥
Just as the all-pervading ether does not become affected by reason of its subtlety, so also the Lord though present in every kind of body, virtuous and sinful, is not affected either.
यथा प्रकाशयत्येकः कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रविः ।
क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत ॥ १३।३४ ॥
O Bhārata, just as the Sun illuminates the whole world, so also the one Lord dwelling in both the intelligent and non-intelligent beings illuminates all the Kṣetra (bodies).
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा ।
भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम् ॥ १३।३५ ॥
Those who perceive by the vision of wisdom the distinction between Kṣetra and Kṣetrajña (the intelligent and non-intelligent entities, and the Supreme being) and who understand the Lord through whom the souls obtain release from mundane bondage, and also understand the means of release, as aforesaid, obtain the Supreme goal.
ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु
ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञविभागयोगो नाम त्रयोदशोऽध्यायः ॥ १३॥
Thus ends the Thirteenth Chapter of the Upanisads of the Bhagavad Gīta entitled “Kṣetra Kṣetrajña Vibhāga Yoga”, the Yoga of Distinction between the Field and Field-Knower.
Reference: Srimad Bhagavad Gita pocket book published by Suguna Samsath with English translation by Shri Bannanje Govindacharya (Received with blessings from HH Shri Shri Sugunendra Tirtha Swamiji of Puttige Matha in Austin, TX, Nov 1997)
Transliterated by Krishna Rao Vijayanagar and Raghunath Rao
“Do your Best … and leave the Rest … “
॥ सर्वं श्री कृष्णार्पणं अस्तु ॥