हरि सर्वोत्तम । वायु जीवोत्तम । श्री गुरुभ्यो नमः ।
*NOTE: Choose desired output script using Aksharamukha (screen top-right) to see Vedaswara.
हरि सर्वोत्तम । वायु जीवोत्तम । श्री गुरुभ्यो नमः ।
इमं विवस्वते योगं प्रोक्तवानहमव्ययम् ।
विवस्वान्मनवे प्राह मनुरिक्ष्वाकवेऽब्रवीत् ॥ ४।१ ॥
Śrī Bhagavān said –
I taught this eternal and undying Yoga to Vivasvān (Sun). He taught it to his son Manu Śraddha Deva and Manu taught it to Ikśvāku.
एवं परम्पराप्राप्तमिमं राजर्षयो विदुः ।
स कालेनेह महता योगो नष्टः परन्तप ॥ ४।२ ॥
Thus handed down in uninterrupted succession the Kings and sages knew this. O Parantapa, this Yoga was lost to the world on account of long lapse of time.
स एवायं मया तेऽद्य योगः प्रोक्तः पुरातनः ।
भक्तोऽसि मे सखा चेति रहस्यं ह्येतदुत्तमम् ॥ ४।३ ॥
That self-same ancient Yoga, I have now taught you; for you are My devotee and friend. This Yoga is a supreme secret.
अपरं भवतो जन्म परं जन्म विवस्वतः ।
कथमेतद्विजानीयां त्वमादौ प्रोक्तवानिति ॥ ४।४ ॥
Arjuna said –
Recent in time is Your birth and remote in antiquity was the birth of Vivasvān. How then am I to understand that You taught it in the beginning?
बहूनि मे व्यतीतानि जन्मानि तव चार्जुन ।
तान्यहं वेद सर्वाणि न त्वं वेत्थ परन्तप ॥ ४।५ ॥
Śrī Bhagavān said –
You and I have passed, O Arjuna, through many lives; I know them all, but you do not know them. O Parantapa.
अजोऽपि सन्नव्ययात्मा भूतानामीश्वरोऽपि सन् ।
प्रकृतिं स्वामधिष्ठाय सम्भवाम्यात्ममायया ॥ ४।६ ॥
Though I am unborn and deathless even in respect of the body, and though I am the Lord of created beings, yet I am born in the world, out of my own will, taking stand on My Prakṛti (Nature)
यदा यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिर्भवति भारत ।
अभ्युत्थानमधर्मस्य तदात्मानं सृजाम्यहम् ॥ ४।७ ॥
O Bhārata, whenever there occurs decline of righteousness and ascendency of unrighteousness, I manifest myself and appear in the world.
परित्राणाय साधूनां विनाशाय च दुष्कृताम् ।
धर्मसंस्थापनार्थाय सम्भवामि युगे युगे ॥ ४।८ ॥
For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the wicked and for the establishment of Dharma, I directly manifest Myself from cycle to cycle (in every cycle or yuga).
जन्म कर्म च मे दिव्यमेवं यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।
त्यक्त्वा देहं पुनर्जन्म नैति मामेति सोऽर्जुन ॥ ४।९ ॥
O Arjuna, he who knows in this light My Divine incarnation and Work in their essence, is not born again on leaving his body, but reaches Me.
वीतरागभयक्रोधा मन्मया मामुपाश्रिताः ।
बहवो ज्ञानतपसा पूता मद्भावमागताः ॥ ४।१० ॥
Devoid of passion, fear and anger, knowing Me as the Supreme, seeking support and refuge in Me, many have become purified by penance and knowledge and have reached the state of being in Me.
ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस्तथैव भजाम्यहम् ।
मम वर्त्मानुवर्तन्ते मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः ॥ ४।११ ॥
As they worship (approach or resort to) Me, so do I reciprocate or receive them. O Arjuna, all men everywhere follow My path.
काङ्क्षन्तः कर्मणां सिद्धिं यजन्त इह देवताः ।
क्षिप्रं हि मानुषे लोके सिद्धिर्भवति कर्मजा ॥ ४।१२ ॥
Those, who in this world, are desirous of early fruition of their action, offer sacrifices to the gods (other than Myself), in this way, accomplishment arising from action, is soon realised in the human world.
चातुर्वर्ण्यं मया सृष्टं गुणकर्मविभागशः ।
तस्य कर्तारमपि मां विद्ध्यकर्तारमव्ययम् ॥ ४।१३ ॥
The four castes based on the divisions of qualities and functions were created by Me. But know Me their Creator to be one Who is not created by another.
न मां कर्माणि लिम्पन्ति न मे कर्मफले स्पृहा ।
इति मां योऽभिजानाति कर्मभिर्न स बध्यते ॥ ४।१४ ॥
Action does not affect or adhere to Me; nor have I any yearning for the fruits thereof. He who understands Me thus is not bound by Karma (action).
एवं ज्ञात्वा कृतं कर्म पूर्वैरपि मुमुक्षुभिः ।
कुरु कर्मैव तस्मात्त्वं पूर्वैः पूर्वतरं कृतम् ॥ ४।१५ ॥
With that knowledge of Me, duty was performed even by ancients who sought Mokṣa. Therefore, do Karma performed by ancients and handed down from time immemorial.
किं कर्म किमकर्मेति कवयोऽप्यत्र मोहिताः ।
तत्ते कर्म प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वा मोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात् ॥ ४।१६ ॥
Even the wise are bewildered, in respect of problems of what is Karma and what is akarma. Therefore, I shall expound to you what Karma is, having known which, you will be liberated from the inauspicious (i.e., Samsāra).
कर्मणो ह्यपि बोद्धव्यं बोद्धव्यं च विकर्मणः ।
अकर्मणश्च बोद्धव्यं गहना कर्मणो गतिः ॥ ४।१७ ॥
Indeed Karma (righteous act), Akarma (inaction) and Vikarma (prohibited action) should be discriminated and distinguished from one another. It is hard to understand the ways of Karma.
कर्मण्यकर्म यः पश्येदकर्मणि च कर्म यः ।
स बुद्धिमान्मनुष्येषु स युक्तः कृत्स्नकर्मकृत् ॥ ४।१८ ॥
He who sees in activity (of Jīva-s) the absence of activity, (i.e., Jīva-s own indpendent activity, God being the real actor) and who sees activity (of God) in the absence of activity (of Jīva-s as in sleep) is the man of wisdom among men, a Yogi and one who has performed his duties fully and completely.
यस्य सर्वे समारम्भाः कामसङ्कल्पवर्जिताः ।
ज्ञानाग्निदग्धकर्माणं तमाहुः पण्डितं बुधाः ॥ ४।१९ ॥
He whose undertakings are all free from desire of fruits and selfish planning and whose actions are burnt up by the fire of knowledge is called a sage by the wise.
त्यक्त्वा कर्मफलासङ्गं नित्यतृप्तो निराश्रयः ।
कर्मण्यभिप्रवृत्तोऽपि नैव किञ्चित्करोति सः ॥ ४।२० ॥
He, who having totally given up attachment to action and its fruits and is always contented relying on none but God, his Maker, is as good as doing nothing at all, although he is engaged in work.
निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा त्यक्तसर्वपरिग्रहः ।
शारीरं केवलं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम् ॥ ४।२१ ॥
He, who has no desires, has controlled his mind and will and is divested of attachment, does not incur any sin by doing what is barely necessary for maintaining the body.
यदृच्छालाभसन्तुष्टो द्वन्द्वातीतो विमत्सरः ।
समः सिद्धावसिद्धौ च कृत्वापि न निबध्यते ॥ ४।२२ ॥
He, who is contented with whatsoever is got unsought, who transcends all pairs of opposites and who is free from envy and is unaffected by success or failure, is not bound by Karma, though he works.
गतसङ्गस्य मुक्तस्य ज्ञानावस्थितचेतसः ।
यज्ञायाचरतः कर्म समग्रं प्रविलीयते ॥ ४।२३ ॥
The karma of one who is free from attachment to fruits thereof, free from Abhimāna for the body, whose mind is strongly fixed in God and who does duties only to please Viṣṇu, simply dissolves his Karma (i.e., they cease to be the cause of bondage).
ब्रह्मार्पणं ब्रह्म हविर्ब्रह्माग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतम् ।
ब्रह्मैव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्मकर्मसमाधिना ॥ ४।२४ ॥
He who knows that Sacrificial articles (things offered) are (dependent on) Brahman, that clarified butter (oblation) is (dependent on) Brahman, that Brahman is (in) the fire, that Brahman is (in) the sacrifice along with meditation, is the only person that reaches Brahman.
दैवमेवापरे यज्ञं योगिनः पर्युपासते ।
ब्रह्माग्नावपरे यज्ञं यज्ञेनैवोपजुह्वति ॥ ४।२५ ॥
Some others who are practitioners of Yoga consider contemplation of the Lord itself as sacrifice; others (householders) perform sacrifices into the fire of Brahman to please the Lord (Who is called) Yajña.
श्रोत्रादीनीन्द्रियाण्यन्ये संयमाग्निषु जुह्वति ।
शब्दादीन्विषयानन्य इन्द्रियाग्निषु जुह्वति ॥ ४।२६ ॥
Others offer as sacrifices their sensory function into the fire of Yogic control; while others offer as sacrifice the sense objects namely sound and the rest into the fire of sensory channel.
सर्वाणीन्द्रियकर्माणि प्राणकर्माणि चापरे ।
आत्मसंयमयोगाग्नौ जुह्वति ज्ञानदीपिते ॥ ४।२७ ॥
Some others offer into the fire of Yoga (psycho-physical discipline) known as self control, kindled by knowledge, all the functions of the organs and the function of breath (i.e., Prāṇa, Apāna, Vyāna, Udāna and Samāna).
द्रव्ययज्ञास्तपोयज्ञा योगयज्ञास्तथापरे ।
स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञाश्च यतयः संशितव्रताः ॥ ४।२८ ॥
Among the saints of rigid and stern observances are performers of sacrifices (of various kinds as above) in which wealth or substances, penances, yoga, study of Vedas and knowledge predominate, figure accordingly as offerings.
अपाने जुह्वति प्राणं प्राणेऽपानं तथापरे ।
प्राणापानगती रुद्ध्वा प्राणायामपरायणाः ॥ ४।२९ ॥
Some others again who are devoted to breath control, having restrained the courses of outgoing prana and incoming breath, pour as sacrifice Prāṇa into Apāna and vice versa.
अपरे नियताहाराः प्राणान्प्राणेषु जुह्वति ।
सर्वेऽप्येते यज्ञविदो यज्ञक्षपितकल्मषाः ॥ ४।३० ॥
Still others having regulated their food, sacrifice the activities of the senses with the senses themselves (i.e., they control the activites of their senses restraining them from sinful actions). All these are knowers of Yajña (sacrifice) and have their sins destroyed by Yajña.
यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजो यान्ति ब्रह्म सनातनम् ।
नायं लोकोऽस्त्ययज्ञस्य कुतोऽन्यः कुरुसत्तम ॥ ४।३१ ॥
Those who partake the nectar remains of what has been offered to the gods in sacrifice attain the Eternal Brahman, O best of the Kuru-s. Even this world (which gives very little happiness) is not for the non-sacrificer, much less the other.
एवं बहुविधा यज्ञा वितता ब्रह्मणो मुखे ।
कर्मजान्विद्धि तान्सर्वानेवं ज्ञात्वा विमोक्ष्यसे ॥ ४।३२ ॥
Thus many and various types of sacrifices are all spread out in the face of Brahman; know them all as resulting from the activities of the body, mind and speech and having thus understood them, you will become liberated.
श्रेयान्द्रव्यमयाद्यज्ञाज्ज्ञानयज्ञः परन्तप ।
सर्वं कर्माखिलं पार्थ ज्ञाने परिसमाप्यते ॥ ४।३३ ॥
O Parantapa, sacrifice of knowledge (study leading to knowledge and wisdom) is superior to sacrifices of wealth and material substance; O Pārtha, all acts in their entirety culminate in the attainment of trustworthy knowledge.
तद्विद्धि प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया ।
उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनस्तत्त्वदर्शिनः ॥ ४।३४ ॥
Therefore, do acquire knowledge by enquiry and by service. The wise seers of truth will then teach and instruct you.
यज्ज्ञात्वा न पुनर्मोहमेवं यास्यसि पाण्डव ।
येन भूतान्यशेषेण द्रक्ष्यस्यात्मन्यथो मयि ॥ ४।३५ ॥
O Pāṇḍava, having acquired that knowledge, you will see all things, without exception in me – the All Pervading Supreme. Consequently never again fall into such confusion as the present one, being free from confusion.
अपि चेदसि पापेभ्यः सर्वेभ्यः पापकृत्तमः ।
सर्वं ज्ञानप्लवेनैव वृजिनं सन्तरिष्यसि ॥ ४।३६ ॥
Even if you are the worst of all sinners, you will cross over all of them by means of this boat of wisdom.
यथैधांसि समिद्धोऽग्निर्भस्मसात्कुरुतेऽर्जुन ।
ज्ञानाग्निः सर्वकर्माणि भस्मसात्कुरुते तथा ॥ ४।३७ ॥
As fire reduces the fuel to ashes O Arjuna, so does the fire of incandescent knowledge i.e., Aparokṣa Jñāna reduces all actions (except Prārabdha) to ashes.
न हि ज्ञानेन सदृशं पवित्रमिह विद्यते ।
तत्स्वयं योगसंसिद्धः कालेनात्मनि विन्दति ॥ ४।३८ ॥
In this world, there is no purifier like wisdom. He who is perfected in Yoga, attains it in respect to God in due course.
श्रद्धावाँल्लभते ज्ञानं तत्परः संयतेन्द्रियः ।
ज्ञानं लब्ध्वा परां शान्तिमचिरेणाधिगच्छति ॥ ४।३९ ॥
He, who has faith, is devoted to Me and has secured mastery over his senses, obtains that knowledge and having got it attains Mokṣa quickly.
अज्ञश्चाश्रद्दधानश्च संशयात्मा विनश्यति ।
नायं लोकोऽस्ति न परो न सुखं संशयात्मनः ॥ ४।४० ॥
He who is ignorant, unbelieving, agnostic, perishes; for doubting Thomasses, there is neither this world nor the world beyond, nor happiness.
योगसंन्यस्तकर्माणं ज्ञानसञ्छिन्नसंशयम् ।
आत्मवन्तं न कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनञ्जय ॥ ४।४१ ॥
O Dhanañjaya, actions do not bind he who dedicates by means of yoga to God with out any desire for fruit, whose any desire for fruit, whose doubts have been rent asunder by wisdom and who is devoted to God.
तस्मादज्ञानसम्भूतं हृत्स्थं ज्ञानासिनात्मनः ।
छित्त्वैनं संशयं योगमातिष्ठोत्तिष्ठ भारत ॥ ४।४२ ॥
Therefore, O Arjuna having cut asunder with the sword of wisdom this doubt born of ignorance which is permeating your heart, follow the means of wisdom and stand up for the battle.
ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु
ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे
ज्ञानयोगो नाम चतुर्थोऽध्यायः ॥ ४॥
Thus ends the Fourth Chapter of the Upanisads of the Bhagavad Gīta, entitled “Jñāna Yoga”, the Yoga of Knowledge.
Reference: Srimad Bhagavad Gita pocket book published by Suguna Samsath with English translation by Shri Bannanje Govindacharya (Received with blessings from HH Shri Shri Sugunendra Tirtha Swamiji of Puttige Matha in Austin, TX, Nov 1997)
Transliterated by Krishna Rao Vijayanagar and Raghunath Rao
“Do your Best … and leave the Rest … “
॥ सर्वं श्री कृष्णार्पणं अस्तु ॥